In this numerical approach, a trial stress is calculated at the start of each simulation time increment; the trial stress calculation assumed all of the new strain increment is elastic strain:

(1)

The algorithms checks to see if the trial stress state is outside of the yield surface, as shown in the figure to the right. If the stress state is outside of the yield surface, the algorithm recomputes the scalar effective inelastic strain required to return the stress state to the yield surface. This approach is given the name Radial Return because the yield surface used is the von Mises yield surface: in the devitoric stress space, this yield surface has the shape of a circle, and the scalar inelastic strain is assumed to always be directed at the circle center.

Recompute Iterations on the Effective Plastic Strain Increment

The recompute radial return materials each individually calculate, using the Newton Method, the amount of effective inelastic strain required to return the stress state to the yield surface.

(2)

where the change in the iterative effective inelastic strain is defined as the yield surface over the derivative of the yield surface with respect to the inelastic strain increment.